Tuesday, 21 June 2016

Green Computing is the Future

As the number of PC’s has approached to count of 2 Billion by 2015, the potential reserves related to energy usage, CO2 discharges and e-waste are undeniable. Therefore, the concept of green computing comes into apparition. The environmental effects of computing should be addressed:Green use, green disposal, green design, and green manufacturing.

Green Computing is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT which includes designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as storage devices, monitors, printers and networking and communications systems — efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment(majorly efficient power consumption).

The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry like dropping the usage of hazardous materials, maximizing energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and stimulating the recyclability or biodegradability of obsolete products and factory waste. Green computing is significant for all types of systems, be it a handheld device or a large scale data centre.

Approaches to promote Green Computing:

Product’s Life: The biggest contribution to green computing usually is to extend the equipment's lifetime including upgradability and modularity as manufacturing a new PC makes a far bigger ecological footprint than manufacturing a new RAMunit to upgrade a present one.

Algorithm’s Efficiency: The efficiency of algorithms impacts on number of computer resources required for any computation and there are many proficient trade-offs in writing programs. Algorithm changes, such as shifting from a high time complexity (e.g. linear) search algorithm to a less time complexity (e.g. hashed or indexed) search algorithm can reduce resource utilization for a given job from substantial to zero and CO2 emission from systems.

Computer Virtualization: The process of operating multiple logical computer systems on same set of physical hardware. With virtualization, a system administrator can merge multiple tangible systems into virtual machines on one single, powerful system, thereby clearing the original hardware and eliminating power and cooling consumption. Virtualization can help in distributing work so that servers are either busy or placed in a low-power sleep mode.

Power Controlling: The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI),delivers a facility to operating system to directly control the power-saving features of its underlying hardware. This permits a system to inevitably switch off components like monitors and hard drives after particular periods of inactivity. Also, a system may hibernate, when most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off.

Data Centers: Data centers, which have been critiqued for their excessive energy demand, are a primary focus for protagonists of green computing.Data centers can possibly improve their energy and space efficiency through techniques such as storage merging and virtualization. Many organizations are targeting to eliminate underutilized servers, which results in excessive energy consumption which can be achieved by training Data Center Administrators.With the help of a self-made super-efficient evaporative cooling technology, Google Inc. has been able to reduce its energy ingesting to 50% of that of the industry mediocre.

Cloud Computing: Cloud computing reports two major ICT dares related to Green computing – energy usage and resource consumption. Virtualization, Dynamic provisioning environment, multi-tenancy, green data center approaches are enabling cloud computing to lower carbon emissions and energy usage up to a great magnitude. Large and small businesses both can reduce their direct energy ingestion and carbon emanations by up to 30% and 90% respectively by moving certain on-premises applications into the cloud. One conjoint example includes online shopping that facilitates people purchase products and services over the Internet without requiring them to reach physical shop by driving all the way long and wasting fuels, which, in turn, reduces greenhouse gas emission related to travel.

Career in Green Computing:
Degree and PG programs, providing training in Information Technology which specializes in efforts for sustainable strategies to educate students how to build and maintain systems while eliminating harmful effects on nature. The Australian National University (ANU) offers "ICT Sustainability" as part of its IT and engineering PG programs. Athabasca University offer a similar course "Green ICT Strategies".  In the UK, Leeds Beckett University offers an “MSc Sustainable Computing program” in both full and part-time programme.

Green Computing Initiative - GCI offers the Certified Green Computing User Specialist (CGCUS), Certified Green Computing Architect (CGCA) and Certified Green Computing Professional (CGCP) certification.

Information Systems Examination Board (ISEB) Foundation Certificate in Green IT is correct for screening an overall understanding and wakefulness of green computing and where its application can be valuable.

Australian Computer Society (ACS) The ACS offers a certificate for "Green Technology Strategies" as part of the Computer Professional Education Program (CPEP). This certification requires a student to complete 12 weeks online course which includes written assignments too, organised by Tom Worthington.

Ms. Garima Verma
Assistant Professor
Deptt. of Information Technology 

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